Human Pelvis Posterior

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The lumbosacral joint, between the sacrum and the last lumbar vertebra, has, like all vertebal joints, an intervertebral disc, anterior and posterior ligaments, ligamenta flava, interspinous and supraspinous ligaments, and synovial joints between the articular processes of the two bones. In addition to these ligaments the joint is strengthened by the iliolumbar and lateral lumbosacral ligaments. The iliolumbar ligament passes between the tip of the transverse process of the fifth lumbar vertebra and the posterior part of the iliac crest. The lateral lumbosacral ligament, partly continuous with the iliolumbar ligament, passes down from the lower border of the transverse process of the fifth vertebra to the ala of the sacrum. The movements possible in the lumbosacral joint are flexion and extension, a small amount of lateral flexion (from 7 degrees in childhood to 1 degree in adults), but no axial rotation. Between ages 2–13 the joint is responsible for as much as 75% (about 18 degrees) of flexion and extension in the lumbar spine. From age 35 the ligaments considerably limit the range of motions.